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Fraud, Waste & Abuse

IG Act History

October 12, 1978

The IG Act of 1978 is enacted by President Jimmy Carter, who signed the Act and described the new statutory IGs as “perhaps the most important new tools in the fight against fraud.”  President Carter charges the IGs to always remember that their ultimate responsibility is not to any individual but to the public interest.

March 26, 1981

President Ronald Reagan established the President’s Council on Integrity and Efficiency (PCIE) through Executive Order 12301.  PCIE was charged with developing plans for coordinated Governmentwide activities which attack fraud and waste in Government programs and operations, among other responsibilities.

October 18, 1988

The IG Act was amended, creating 30 additional OIGs at designated agencies, providing essentially the same powers and duties as those appointed by the President; however, these IGs are appointed by, and can be removed by, the agency head.

May 11, 1992

President George H.W. Bush established the Executive Council on Integrity and Efficiency (ECIE) for agency appointed IGs, and reconstituted the PCIE, through Executive Order 12805.  ECIE and PCIE were charged with the responsibility to continually identify, review, and discuss areas of weakness and vulnerability in Federal programs and operations to reduce fraud, waste, and abuse, and develop plans for coordinated, Governmentwide activities that address these problems and promote economy and efficiency in Federal programs and operations, among other responsibilities.

March 21, 1996

President William J. Clinton established an Integrity Committee responsible for administering the procedures for investigating allegations of wrongdoing by individual IGs.

November 25, 2002

The Homeland Security Act of 2002 is enacted by President George W. Bush, transferring the Federal Emergency Management Agency functions to the Department of Homeland Security.  Further, the Act amended the IG Act of 1978 authorizing the exercise of law enforcement authority, including carrying firearms, making arrests, and executing warrants, to special agents of 24 Presidentially-appointed OIGs.  Additionally, the Act included provisions to enable other OIGs to qualify for law enforcement authority.  Prior to this Act, four other OIGs possessed law enforcement authority pursuant to separate legislation.

October 14, 2008

The IG Reform Act of 2008 is enacted by President George W. Bush, establishing the CIGIE as the unified council of all statutory IGs with the mission to address integrity, economy, and effectiveness issues that transcend individual Government agencies; and increase the professionalism and effectiveness of personnel by developing policies, standards, and approaches to aid in the establishment of a well-trained and highly skilled workforce in the offices of the Inspectors General.

February 17, 2009

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 is enacted by President Barack Obama, establishing appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.  Additionally, the Act established the Recovery Act Accountability and Transparency Board consisting of the Chairperson and 10 IGs, and any other IGs designated by the President.  

July 21, 2010

The Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 is enacted by President Barack Obama, establishing, among other things, that designated Federal entities consisting of a board or commission, are considered heads of their agencies with respect to the appointment of those entities’ IGs.  Further, that for removal of such an IG requires a written concurrence of two-thirds of the board or commission.

October 7, 2010

The Intelligence Authorization Act for FY 2010 is enacted by President Barack Obama, establishing the Intelligence Community Inspector General and establishing the four Defense Intelligence components as designated Federal entities under the IG Act of 2008.  Through enactment, all five of these IGs became members of the CIGIE.

November 27, 2012

The Whistleblower Protection and Enhancement Act of 2012 is enacted by President Barack Obama, establishing that each Presidentially-appointed Senate-confirmed IG shall designate a Whistleblower Protection Ombudsman responsible for educating agency employees about prohibitions on retaliation for protected disclosures and the rights and remedies against retaliation for protected disclosures.